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Go to All World [s]: Assessing Christian Presence in Online Gaming Community


“And he stated unto them, Go into the entire world, and preach the gospel unto the whole creature. ""

Mark 16:15

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The web gaming group is likely one of the quick growing subordinate subgroups of society, and as in all social phenomena, the Christian Church has responded in a lot of alternative ways. in the example, the writer responds to the rising reputation of Pokémon by abandoning all video games involving violence or fantasy (two major elements of many on-line video games at present) because they "desensitize children" violently [1] Actually, a lot of the gaming group's analysis makes an attempt to distinguish between potential gaming and actual violence. [2]

One other critical criticism of the playing phenomenon is the dependence of on-line gambling. There are a number of case research of particular person gamers scuffling with habit. In a well known case, a South Korean couple misplaced their daughter's malnutrition because they spent most of their time at an Internet cafe. [3] Such stories have led to care facilities all over the world, reminiscent of Morningside Restoration at Newport Seashore, CA, to present packages tailor-made particularly to video game habit.

Although some Christians have responded to the gaming group in a certain means, [4] and for obviously good cause, others actively take part in the digital world. When these Christians, gamers are requested, in specific, why they play the violence, lots of them emphasize the differences between the digital world and the actual world commentary, reminiscent of "I'm just killing pixels." Some individuals will not be in a position to resolve the incorrect debate, however it is a controversial concern for tens of millions of people; they play [5] This research overrides an essential debate concerning the advantages and risks of video games to see the Church's presence in the digital world, make some preliminary observations, presents (hopefully) constructive criticism and attracts conclusions from a wiser strategy to proclaiming the gospel


"Gentleness and respect" (1 Pet three: 5), which takes time to perceive the context of the individuals they attain while loving them sincerely. For these causes, this article seems to be on the demographics of the MMOG group, its position in "third place", and examines a number of the potential motivations and values ​​that gamers have [6].

The next studies mainly cope with individuals who play MMOG (Massively Multiplayer Online Games), a inhabitants that has a big proportion of younger individuals. While games with a number of platforms have historically moved in the direction of social interaction (cf. Atar Pong vs. Fb Recreation Purposes), MMOGs have developed an accelerated joint construction that gives deeper immersion and consumer connectivity.

Stereotypes of what kind of individuals play online games, but the preferred function is the male teenager scuffling with one facet of duty. Nevertheless, current studies have shown that the gaming group is increasingly numerous. In a single research, about 40% of the gamers have been ladies. [7] Although the bulk nonetheless remains male gender, this can be a major change in the gaming culture. The gender distribution differs in some ways. Comparing Age and Gender Distribution to Nick Yee's # 41 broad Daedalus challenge, he discovered that "male players are usually between 12 and 28, while female players are generally between 23 and 40". The vary consists of late younger adults. [8] That is why each dimension directed to the MMOG group is usually targeted on the youth inhabitants [9]

One of many questions requested by the Daedalus challenge for MMOG players was: "How important is religion in your life?" Almost 70% of 3,000 respondents selected "No it isn’t necessary at all. ”Subsequently, it’s in all probability truthful to conclude that the gamers are largely in“ religion ”(although they could signify themselves as“ spiritual ”in the overall sense) [10] and could possibly be thought-about as“ unreached ”. young individuals and it’s the focus of this text.

MMOG Third Place.

The sense of group built across the recreation can’t be overestimated. Many software corporations understand this and have taken advantage of their social character by advertising cross-product merchandise to improve their group presence (ie, Steam, Xfire, Ventrilo, Teamspeak, Origin, and lots of others). Virtually all of those packages embrace immediate messaging, VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol, Microphones) and a few present a singular set of video games for each player to permit players to be a part of each other

  Cheers Sign (Photograph credit: Photomatt28)

Where Everyone Knows Your (Display) Identify, "Constance Steinkuehler (University of Wisconsin-Madison) and Dmitri Williams (Illinois Univ.) Evaluate the virtual world of Ray's" third locations "in Oldenburg; Third places are spaces that catalyze social interaction outside work and home. To win the third place in the game world, Steinkuehler and Williams showed how this world is suited to all of the eight characteristics of Oldenburg (see Appendix A), except for one [11] The only feature they made in the virtual world was not literally "Low Profile." Although they agreed that the social community could be a low profile, they found the MMOG the most ornamented, fantastic, and unusual. [12] I disagree with their conclusion that MMOG's do not fit this criteria to the letter. I argue that a gaming machine, the computer itself, is often located in a low profile environment and thus fulfills all of the eight features of the "third location".

The world of online gaming definitely matches these criteria and the gamer proves to be properly suited to them. The web recreation is relatively straightforward and social lubrication, a neutral country and a degree enjoying subject. It includes a high clever ban (cf. “Trolling”) and supplies a relatively secure set of normal individuals. The consequences of these on evangelism are obvious, but shall be mentioned later.

Attainable Motivational Elements

The Daedalus undertaking created a set of “primary motivations” behind the gamers' wishes. There were three categories in the record; Achievement (turning into powerful, progressive, competing with others, analyzing gaming mechanics), social (socializing with others, making good buddies, working with others in the workforce) and immersing (finding the world, enjoying role-playing video games, avoiding actual life issues by adapting your character, embedding in the MMO) [13] In a research of over 2100 individuals, 19% chose progression as the first motivation (the very best selected category), while 14.5% chose embedding, 12.7% exploration, 10.2% socialization … from backside to three; four.four% energy, four.0% position play and a couple of.7% escape. When these responses have been categorized according to their average age, the info appeared to indicate that older individuals (average age 30.2 to 33.9) had a extra "casual" cause to play when the youthful group (common age 25.6 to 27.three) chose a relatively aggressive causes (race, energy, analysis.

A number of the observations that I've made listening to the enjoying space members, mirror this want, but there’s nonetheless one speculative nuances, which I would really like to supply. It’s attainable that gamers will appeal to virtual group economies due. Let me clarify: in most video games, every character starts with roughly the identical talent, energy, investment levels, and the reward is reliably balanced; they’re out of such forms of social interaction they find on-line. Conquered by hundreds of thousands of gamers, the Church's response has typically been to invite them out of play. As said earlier, such an strategy is credibly legitimate, however the focus of this text is on assessing the Christian presence that’s already in the work group. [14] The flat refusal to take part aside, the parish's response has mainly been a part of two approaches; creating options and creating area by creating on-line clans.

Creating Christian Options

Some reliable Christian fashions have responded to the rising world of on-line gambling by creating Christian options to common games; The Church's technique for pop music, tv, film, board games, apparel and apparently all types of business culture. The supporters of this strategy often mention the unfavorable messages of the preferred video video games and their use, magic, witchcraft, demonology, violence, greed, sensuality, and all the opposite means round, and such criticism is hardly defenseless in the light of games that encourage players to steal automobiles, shoot police, cope with medicine and rob prostitutes (cf. Grand Theft Auto: Vice City). Though the morals of participation in certain virtual worlds are mentioned, Christian options have arrived. Two such video games interact critically sufficient with the MMOG PC mannequin to be thought-about in this text.

Although a small choice of Christian video games for mainstream consoles (ie, Nintendo) and PC-based pedagogical instruments has been in use a yr in the past, one large leap into an alternate game-type style came from Catechumen, a single-player recreation developed by Ralph Bagley in 2000 , in the form. He claims that there was no curiosity in buyers before the Columbine capturing in 1999, after which the quantity of such an alternate recreation grew dramatically [15] In Catechumen, which largely resembles the unique Doom, the player takes on the position of a Christian throughout official Roman persecution and frees his pilot from imprisonment in Rome. catacombs under. To do that, the participant makes use of quite a lot of swords that shoot the heroes of the Holy Energy to enemies who are demons and the demon has guards. The player is provided with a muscular angelic association and Bible references that seem from time to time as you progress. in the literature section, when it used the four greatest places in the New York Occasions best-seller listing in 1998. [17] It wasn't in November 2006, nevertheless, that the collection was bought as a single participant and as an internet multiplayer beneath the identify of PC Inspired Media Leisure Left Behind: Everlasting Forces. This recreation resembles a Command and Conquer collection with an aerial view, from which the participant controls numerous forces, including builders, nurses, warriors and soldiers. The plot line follows the plot plot; Jesus has awakened his church and the unbelievers "were left behind". A couple of turned to Christianity and shaped nervousness, intending to struggle anti-Christ Nicolae Carpathia and his international group wars. The aim of the game is to rework the citizens and the worldwide group The followers of the harassment drive or to defeat them with army capabilities

The nuances of some left-wing battle: the everlasting forces left many players wanting. Many have portrayed it as a cumbersome digital camera mechanic for poor multiplayer connection problems [18] In a single example, all the models managed by a player embrace Spirit beams that continuously deteriorate and require the player to constantly ship them via prayer; a process that’s turning into increasingly repetitive and boring. As well as, killing enemy models, even if it achieves objectives, reduces the life beams quicker and requires additional prayer (such a function is likely to be counterbalanced by the rewards of violence). If the player does not continually verify the extent of the Spirit of the unit, they may possible return to an incompatible or dangerous state. One critic asked, "Who knew that directing people to the Lord would lead to so much micro-response?" [19]

If such criticism was not enough, certain points of the story left the players annoyed and even injured. Recreation builders have been accused of, inter alia, questionable gender stereotypes; When civilians are changed, solely males can grow to be clergymen and builders, while solely ladies can grow to be nurses. This is just one instance of many who triggered what one of many authors, Jerrry Jenkins, himself referred to as a "public flip" (one thing he considers "ridiculous to madness"). [20]

Though catechumin, left behind: Nervousness and other Christian video games have tried to grow to be a normal recreation middle, no one knows to know that I’ve developed a legally engaging Christian MMOG. The left-hand again is as close to the company as its multiplayer selection, but the tough mechanics, connectivity issues, the dubious plot, and large public violence forestall some individuals, together with me, from seeing it as an honest various to the obtainable engaging [21]

Creating an area via Christian clans and gaming communities [19659014] One other strategy to involving the gaming group in Christ includes numerous Christian subgroups from a bigger virtual group, typically referred to as "clans," "Guilds," or "Alliances." Annex B from a large record)


These groups typically began an in depth group of pals and commenced to branch into the group once they came into contact n Christian players mirror a sure dimension of "grassroots" (this in all probability has one thing to do with the gaming group's tendency to promote user-generated content material, funding and initiative). The objectives expressed by Christian clans differ, however lots of them have the next arguments:

  1. Provide a constructive environment (ie not swearing, calling or dishonest) typically in the midst of a adverse recreation
  2. Unfold Jesus' information (although this is not often defined in addition to two different claims) .
  3. Open to Christians and non-Christians who are prepared to abide by the Code of Conduct.

Less than nearly all of these special gameplay, though vital in number, incorporates tough beliefs about their beliefs, they usually seem to use either broad ecumenical language or intently mirror conservative confessions of the Evangelical Church.

The Christian Life League is situated in its boards and VOIP channels. Forums present channels for discussion on numerous games, administrative information, Bible studies, life or God, technical issues, politics, RL (Actual Life) members, and different subjects. VOIP channels enhance in-game communication and other group meetings. Some clans use cash to lease servers for certain games that their membership performs, in order that they control the principles and the power to measure the action of the sport. These servers typically generate visitors from non-clan players and supply some interplay with the gaming space.


The objective of Christian evangelism is information and willingness to settle for the Lord of Christ. One thing to know is that Christ is the Lord; as says Jaak. At 2:19, "even the demons believe and mock!" There’s something else to give your loyalty to the creator of making every little thing. Once we assume we will attain players in the MMOG group, the individual and work of Jesus Christ have to be the focus of our message. The information of the gospel supposedly incorporates a common acknowledgment that issues are broken (together with us), that God has executed, and does all things by means of the life, demise, and resurrection of Jesus from the lifeless. The first approach in which issues are "legitimate" is their relationship with God; Particularly, God reconciles all issues to himself by way of Jesus (Col. 1:20). This consists of gamers, their relationships, and the world in which they stay.

Incarnational Witness.

God entered our world in a new means by way of the life of Jesus. He turned certainly one of us, moved to the neighbor, even "became [oming] flesh and we live [ing] among us" (John 1:14). He’s the "avatar" of the invisible God (Col. 1:15). [22] This is what theologians call "incarnation," God and man develop into one. A world witness has emerged from this concept; The followers of Jesus are invited to participate in the lives and worlds of people they’re referred to as to love and evangelize. This differs considerably from the present model of Church life; "come to us" the thought of ​​engaging witnesses [23] Although creating engaging church buildings and packages is hardly a nasty thing, it’s simply not enough. Christians are referred to as "to go to all nations and to make disciples" (Matthew 28:19), "do not invite all nations to yourself, disciples." This requires the entry of one other world and, in a way, the difference of the surroundings to the surroundings

An built-in a part of incarnate witnesses is a 'mid-stage' mannequin. As an alternative of coming into contact with individuals and immediately presenting the contents of the gospel, the incarnate witness makes use of a standard expertise to achieve entry to the lives and attitudes of different individuals. Those who ignore the mid-term (shared expertise) in the MMOG group may be somebody copying and pasting "Jesus is Lord" time and again in a common discussion, however extra doubtless than not, many will routinely reject them as "trolling" (or worse)

The great thing about evangelism in the MMOG context is the nature of the sport itself. The video games of youth games are ready-made, very simply accessible centers. Let me explain. Think about a 40-year-old man making an attempt to plan a medium step with younger individuals at an area basketball courtroom. This may happen if it worked in any respect, an honest period of time, and the pursuit of relational exercise. Nevertheless, in MMOG, the gamers go alongside the paths and share their experiences persistently, typically every 10 minutes (cf. Enjoying the sport in APB: Reloaded). These periods embrace strategy, teamwork and crises. Lack of physical closeness (or maybe due to it!), It may be onerous to press to create a greater center part in such a short time. The key to the Christian testimony is to consciously place these experiences, build relationships, model the character created by Christ, and make the most of all of the opportunities to clarify the "hope that is in you, with gentleness and respect" (1 Pet three: 15).

! Now Talking To Your Hand ” data-recalc-dims=”1″/> (Photograph Credit: Daniel Dionne)

Capturing has been considerably adverse, particularly for spiritual violence, and quite rightly. Christians have used the "bait and exchange" technique to trick individuals into hearing or reading the gospel (cf. the "money" of the gospel) by collaborating in Christian meetings, gaining troublesome conversations, and watching Christian movies. Such techniques not often make modifications to individuals, and doubtless the least to young individuals who worth sincerity and openness in others. [24] Nevertheless, asserting the biblical nature requires sincere love for the untouched and prepared to see them reconciled with God by means of Christ. As Paul stated, "we know the fear of the Lord, we assure others" (2 Corinthians 5:11). Our current objective is to make young players change their minds. In order to maximize convincing efforts, we have to be important of the qualities of convincing individuals, the motivation of MMOG players and what might imply a significant reply.

The characteristics of believing Christians embrace pure, open and actual, respectful and simple. In the context of MMOG, this implies respecting the group norms and rituals confirmed by every recreation. "Natural" means that you’re free to interact in playful joke with the inevitable troll with mercy and humor, answer questions with out protection, and let others categorical themselves without dangerous mockery. In such a state of affairs, respect requires that gamers respect the course of conversations; Whereas the inventiveness and wisdom are inspired by the interlocutors, forcing the spiritual tone into the dialog can have a adverse effect. Keep in mind, nevertheless, that over 53% of MMOG players stated they have been discussing "Real Life Personal Issues" during gaming no less than typically or typically. [25] Players are prepared to talk about religion in common and their faith in a special method, but such opportunities are somewhat natural. Christians must put together to respond once they do.

As we noticed earlier, a lot of the Daedalus venture gamers chose "progress" as the first motivation followed by immersion, exploration and socialization. How might the Christian gospel converse to these motivating elements? Has the Christian message spoken of progress? Completely; As followers of Jesus, the Bible challenges us to regularly follow excellence (Col. 3: 23-24), progress (1 Peter 2: 2), maturity and progress in the follow of God (Hebrews 5: 12). Speaking of religious presents, Paul urged Timothy to "practice these things, to submerge them, so that all may see you proceed" (1 Tim. four:15). If such a observe is just not a slogan for MMOG motivation, there’s nothing.

The reality is that the gospel isn’t opposite to immersion, search, or socialization; in reality, this stuff are harmful to the gospel. The incarnation exhibits immersion (Phil 2: 5f), the good commissioner instructions the Christian search (Mat 28: 16f), and the Trinity speaks of the social character that characterizes the nature of God, extending to the relative nature of the Christian group. These are simply an instance of hyperlinks between the gospel and the motivations of MMOG players, but they’re essential keys to the insurance coverage course of.

One troublesome query has to be answered; what meaningful change does the MMOG present? A simple answer is contemplating the objective of evangelism; "Willing to accept the Lord Jesus", however is that the one type of "meaningful" change? Assimilation and contrast effects recommend that it isn’t. If a tough Christian player immediately tries to persuade a non-Christian participant who’s hated by Christians to love deeply with Christ and his followers, the result is typically the other; such a player hates Christians even more (Contrast Effect). Then again, if there is a meaningful interaction between Christians and Christians in their midst of gambling, and Christians attempt to get Christians only to moderately contradictory, then it’s going to in all probability happen (assimilation impact). All of this says that the gradual change is a sensible, respectable and practical a part of the evangelization course of.

Nevertheless, the results of the specified consent have to be decided. If Christian players are witnessed to an internet good friend and this good friend comes to a decision to comply with Jesus, sure issues might be key to the Christian speaking. The idea of "follow" in the teachings and management of Jesus is an indispensable start line, but in addition focuses on responding to God's love, obedience, and becoming a member of the Church. This last focus is probably probably the most troublesome to comply with in an internet surroundings. Nevertheless, the importance of the Church's connection have to be emphasized sooner or later as an essential part of belonging to God's group (Heb. 10:25).

Assessing Present Strategies

The primary class of the Christian dimension in gaming was the group's contribution to creating various video games. Such efforts, which are admirable as they’re, are a gorgeous model. As an alternative of stepping into the communities themselves, these video games are outstanding outdoors the group and ask gamers to depart their expertise to attempt their products. Although a beautiful mannequin might have an effect on some, as Jerry Jenkins calls, [26] there are all the time gamers who refuse to "walk through the doors." How do these video games have an effect on unattainable youth? And what if they do?

The most important drawback with options is their quality. If, and provided that we determined to create Christian options to present video games, they want to be developed excellently. Because the number of Christian options grows when the quality is considerably behind its "secular" responses, the message of the Christ man is unnecessarily associated to the stereotypes of subpar and kitsch.

One other group, the Christian clans, is an built-in strategy. These gamers try to enter and participate immediately in the gaming group. But, most of those clans work with the "distinction" that’s meant to serve Christian gamers by creating ethical ambitions (an essential objective), however to cease any aggressive attempt to be a part of non-Christian players in the virtual websites where they stay. Some Christian clans apparently attempt for such efforts, but their goals are unclear and their success is troublesome to measure.


The mission of the Christian Church is to go into the entire world and proclaim the gospel to all (Mark 16:15). Taken critically, this command all the time goes to the virtual creation and virtual world that increasingly more young individuals stay annually. I would really like to supply three last recommendations to all Christians or churches who’re significantly contemplating calling it evangelism or youth in an MMOG context; First, all efforts to create various Christian games must meet the very best requirements of the very best commonplace that meet the requirements of "ordinary" recreation builders. They should additionally keep in mind the truth that even most gamers don’t play video games. Second, Christian clans shouldn’t commit to building protected communities for young Christian players, and they should develop a real "dimension" separate from the safety of managed environments. This may increasingly appear to be players who’re dedicated to the rules of persuasion, testimony, gentleness, and respect once they instill themselves aggressively into other gaming communities in the vein of an incarnation. Finally, any Christian clan who is involved in creating options, or simply a part of the Church, Christians are these across the rallies who would continue such evangelical efforts in the MMOG. As an alternative of dealing with the growing population teams that haven’t been reached, the Church must commit to its players by offering group, help, duty, encouragement, and bondage to actual life, understanding each the potential pitfalls of playing and Jesus' name [s].


Appendix A: Ray Oldenburg's 8th “Third Place” Function

Function Definition Impartial Subject Locations are impartial criteria the place people can freely come and go as a result of they want little commitment or different attendance. Leveler Third locations are spaces where an individual's investment in the office or in the whole society isn’t imported. Hyväksyminen ja osallistuminen ei ole riippuvainen edellytyksistä, vaatimuksista, rooleista, tehtävistä tai todistuksesta jäsenyydestä. Keskustelu on päätoiminta Kolmannissa paikoissa keskustelu on pääpaino toiminnassa, jossa leikkisyyttä ja viisautta arvostetaan yhdessä Helppokäyttöisyys ja majoitus Kolmansien paikkojen on oltava helposti saatavilla ja niille on tarjottava niille, jotka niitä usein käyttävät. The Regulars Kolmansiin paikkoihin kuuluu säännöllisesti saapuneiden henkilöiden kadreja, jotka houkuttelevat uusia tulokkaita ja antavat tilaa sen ominaisuuksille Pieni profiili Kolmas paikka on tyypillisesti kodikas ja ilman väkivaltaa Temper on leikkisä Kolmansien paikkojen yleinen tunnelma on leikkisä ja leikkimielinen, verbaalinen sana ja viisas. Koti poissa kotoa Kolmannet paikat ovat kotimaisia ​​kuin Seamonin (1979) viisi määrittelevää ominaisuutta: juurtuminen, hallussapitot, henkinen regeneraatio, tunteet olonsa helpoksi ja sota kk. [27]

Liite B: Luettelo Christian Gaming Clansista

= AT = Anav Tsiyr «A ° G» Jumalan armeija BIC Brothers in Christ

CoG Jumalan lapset

]< Christian Crew

Chirstian Coalition of Nations

+CGO+ Christian Players Online

~cKs~ Christian Key Smashers

=CS= Christian Snipers

CS Christian Troopers

CS7~ Christian Troopers seventh Division

CSF Christian Star Fleet

|CoR| Metropolis of Refuge

[LORD] Clan Lord

G4CD Intelligent Dragon Gaming

[CS] Day of Defeat Christian Soldiers
[D.O.G.] Disciples of God Revolution


-)ET(- Straightforward Targets

[HOA] 4 Horsemen of the Apocolypse


[4Him] Players four Him

+g4J+Players 4 Jesus

GBG Gaming By Grace(GFC) God’s Frozen ChosenGHS God’s Humble ServantsGS Good Samaritans

GoC Guardians Of Christ

-^IW^- Invisible Warriors

[ISI]Iron Sharpens Iron

=ITC= In The Clouds

-KinGDoM- Kingdom Clan

*MoG* Men of God

Males of Valor

-=Of-God=- Of God Clan

[R] Redeemed

(RC) Resonate Christ

-=SBD=- Saved Before Dying

S@V3D Saved Crew

+SbG+ Saved by Grace Fellowship

SoC Soldiers of Christ

[SOFW] Troopers of Overseas Wars

JL Workforce Jesus Lives

=TCM= The Christian Militia

[ToJ] Tribe Of Judah

TF Tribulation Drive

Tribulation Pressure Gaming

(WWA) World Broad Ambassador [28]

*with “clan tags”

Different Christian Gaming Clans:

The Forgiven

[1] Jackson, John Paul. Buying and Promoting the Souls of Our Youngsters: A Closer Take a look at Pokémon.

(Ft. Value: Streams Publications, 2000), 35.

[2] Another vital section of analysis in this subject studies the applicability of gaming for instructional and training objectives.

[3] BBC Information. S Korea baby ‘starves as parents raise virtual baby’. (accessed June 8, 2012).

[4] Patrick, McCormick,  Ethical Kombat.  U.S. Catholic.( Chicago: Apr 2009. Vol. 74, Iss.  4), 42.

[5] The gaming firm Blizzard announced in 2011 that World of Warcraft had 11.four million subscribers. Ziebart, Alex. World of Warcraft dips to a mere 11.four million subscribers. WOW Insider. (accessed June 7, 2012).

[6] Any further “gamer” might be used interchangeably with “MMOG player.”

[7] Tamsin Osborn. The Virtual Battle of the Sexes. BBC Information. (accessed June 7, 2012).

[8]Nick Yee, Age and Gender Distribution. The Daedalus Challenge, 2003. (accessed June 7, 2012).

[9] It’s typically troublesome to type rigid age associated delineations in online outreach, due to the excessive degree of anonymity.  An integral a part of this article, nevertheless, is the idea that evangelism in the MMOG group is almost synonymous with youth outreach and evangelism.

[10] Ed Stetzer, Richie Stanley, and Jason Hayes. Misplaced and Discovered: The Younger Unchurched and the Churches that Reach Them. (B&H Publishing Group, Kindle Edition, 2009), 5.

[11] Constance Steinkeuhler and Dmitri Williams,Where Everyone Knows Your (Display) Identify:
Online Video games as “Third Places”. (accessed July 7, 2012).

[13] Nick Yee, Main Motivations. The Daedalus Undertaking, 2008. (accessed June 7, 2012).

[14] On something of a aspect observe, some youth ministries contain using multiplayer video games, like the Halo collection for Xbox, as tools for outreach.  Although this is technically connecting with adolescents by means of the “video game” medium, I do not consider it qualifies as outreach into the gaming group, and positively does not meet this text’s MMOG criteria.

[15] Matthew Davis, Christians Purge Video Recreation Demons. BBC News. (accessed June 7, 2012).

[16] Rick Casteel, Guid 2 Games: Catchumen. (accessed June 7, 2012).

[17] Jimmy Akin , False Profit: Money, Prejudice, and Dangerous Theology in Tim LaHaye’s Left Behind Collection, (accessed June 7, 2012).

[18] Brett Todd, Left Behind: Eternal Forces Evaluation. Gamespot, 2006. (accessed June 2012).

[20]Jerry Jenkins, Left Behind Video Recreation Controversy, Left Behind Web site. (accessed June 7, 2012).

[21] Nevertheless, there are some Christian recreation developers working to transfer on from  the unexcellent” and “preachy” stigmas. Owen Good, Christian Recreation Builders Need to Depart Dangerous Video games Behin. Kotaku. (accessed June 7, 2012).

[22] This metaphor shouldn’t be pushed all the best way to Modalism (i.e. the Father is the Son).

[23] Roxburgh, Alan J. and M. Scott Boren, Introducing the Missional Church: What it’s, Why it Issues, How to Turn out to be One (Baker Books. Kindle Edition, 2009), 20.

[24] Ed Stetzer, Richie Stanley, and Jason Hayes. Misplaced and Discovered: The Youthful Unchurched and the Church buildings that Reach Them. (B&H Publishing Group, Kindle Edition, 2009), 144.

[25] Nick Yee, Further Player Demographics. The Daedalus Venture, 2007. (accessed June 7, 2012).

[26] Jerry Jenkins, Left Behind Video Recreation Controversy, Left Behind Web site. (accessed June 7, 2012).

[27] Constance Steinkeuhler and Dmitri Williams,Where Everyone Knows Your (Display) Identify:
Online Games as “Third Places”. (accessed July 7, 2012).

[28]Cheryl Gress, Christian Gaming Clans, Christian Recreation Servers Web site. (accessed June 7, 2012).

[Adapted from a research paper presented at Fuller Theological Seminary]

Allen O'Brien

Allen is the pastor of a UCC church in Northern California and co-founder of the Irenicast. He believes in the importance of schooling, peace, and ecology, throws things to his border collie Sonata, and writes for multiple platforms.

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